The cement industry is one of the largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters in the Thai industry. The cement sector accounted for about 20,633 kilotonnes (ktonnes) CO2 emissions in 2005 in Thailand. A bottom-up CO2 abatement cost curve (ACC) is constructed in this study for the Thai cement industry to determine the potentials and costs of CO2 abatement, taking into account the costs and CO2 abatement of different technologies. The period of 2010–2025 is chosen as the scenario period. We analyzed 41 CO2 abatement technologies and measures for the cement industry. Using the bottom-up CO2 ACC model, the cost-effective annual CO2 abatement potential for the Thai cement industry during the 15 year scenario period (2010–2025) is equal to 3095 ktonnes CO2/year. This is about 15% of the Thai cement industry's total CO2 emissions in 2005. The total technical annual CO2 abatement potential is 3143 ktonnes CO2/year, which is about 15.2% of the Thai cement industry's total CO2 emissions in 2005. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis for the discount rate parameter.