Transportation & Energy Storage

Transportation & Energy Storage

We focus on developing various tools, analysis and design capacities to address the growing and complex needs of transportation systems with conventional, hybrid-electric and pure electric vehicles.

Transportation and Energy StorageHybrid Electric Truck Stock Image

Renewable electricity prices plummeted 80% between 2010 and 2019 to reach about $0.03/kWh. Wholesale power prices in several organized markets in the US are at historical lows driven partly by low natural gas prices. Additionally, battery prices (specifically, Li ion) have fallen 85% since 2010 to 2020 to about $150/kWh and are expected to decline to $100 per kWh in the next few years. Given this context, cost effective electrification of different vehicle segments including cars, public transit buses (both intra-city and inter-city) and commercial freight vehicles including class-8 trucks is not beyond reach with more targeted R&D and policy support. Our work of transportation and sustainability falls under the following three broad areas. Our geographic focus is global but with additional focus emphasis in the U.S., the state of California, and India.


Assessment of techno-economic and environmental potential and the barriers to adoption of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs)

Fleet of commercial trucksOne set of projects is focused on a detailed estimation of total cost of ownership of electric vehicles for cars, buses, trains and trucks in different geographic markets. We use both detailed bottom-up component level estimation of vehicle production cost and also top-down incremental cost analysis that simply focuses on differences between internal combustion engines and EVs. Our work shows how targeting high-mileage users and vehicle segments is counter-intuitively more economical notwithstanding the conventional wisdom about range anxiety and charging barriers and cost suggesting a greater focus on low vehicle miles traveled (VMT) applications.

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Estimating charging infrastructure needs and environmental impacts of fleet electrification

electric cars chargingWe are also focused on simulating the charging infrastructure needs for electrification of intra-city and inter-city buses, taxis and trucks in different geographic regions: New York, San Francisco, New Delhi and the state of California as a whole. Data on actual taxi trips, public transit bus schedules and freight movement along highways is being used to simulate these trips using electric vehicles and estimate the minimum charging infrastructure, the cost of service and environmental impacts without sacrificing timely movement of people, goods and services.

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Novel policies adoption of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs)

EV Car ChargingZEV adoption and diffusion can occur more rapidly than currently underway, with fewer provided subsidies that are targeted to the right sectors and with proper policy support. We target adoption by high-use and commercial vehicles rather than private household vehicles. 

Two key specific sectors - commercial automobile fleets (taxi, uber and ola) and passenger buses (public and private, intra-inter-city) are particularly ripe for a complete transition to electric vehicles. These two sectors need minimal subsidies, but they need a significant investment in charging infrastructure and some complementary policies that do not entail substantial budgetary outlay. 

We are analyzing which aspects of EV adoption and support in China, Europe and the U.S. are relevant to less wealthier countries, such as India and other developing countries with unique economic, social and political context, and which aspects may need a different approach. We are also analyzing how electricity pricing needs to be rethought for electrification of commercial vehicles specifically, heavy duty trucking.

Selected Publications and Media