Alternative Emerging Ironmaking Technologies for Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: A Technical Review
Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries. Ironmaking accounts for the major share of total energy use in steel production in integrated steel mills that use blast furnaces and basic oxygen furnace. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the ironmaking process that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding alternative emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet fully commercialized. This paper consolidates available information on 12 alternative emerging ironmaking technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status. All the alternative emerging ironmaking technologies eliminate energy-intensive coke production. COREX® Process, FINEX® Process, and Coal-Based HYL Process are very promising alternative emerging ironmaking technologies because they are already commercialized, but they have very low adoption rate in the steel industry worldwide.