Assessment of multiple-based demand response actions for peak residential electricity reduction in Ghana
Demand-side management initiatives such as voluntary demand response provide significant energy savings in the residential sector, which is a major peak demand contributor. The potential of such savings remains unexplored in Ghanaian households due to insufficient electricity consumption data, lack of end-user behavior information and knowledge about the cost-effectiveness of such programs. This research combines 80 household survey information and energy use monitoring data of household appliances, to assess the residential demand response potential of Ghana. A bottom-up approach based on modified end-use model is used to develop aggregate hourly load curve. The estimated electricity consumption is categorized based on their degree of control to determine peak demand reduction potential for the period 2018-2050. The average daily peak load reduction ranged between 65-406 MW representing 2-14% for the considered scenarios by 2050. The results show appreciable economic viability for investment in demand response with net present value varying between 28-645 million US$. We find that price, energy security and environment signals influence end-users’ electricity use behavior. Authors observe that for energy and cost savings to be realized, utility providers and consumers need effective cooperation on information delivery and feedbacks, and consumers should be incentivized to balance the benefits.